Important Dates between Scotland and England in the fight for Scottish Independence
Malcolm III (Malcolm Canmore) King of Scotland 1058 -1093 occupied Edinburgh Castle and was first to start the battles between Scotland and England. He was killed by knights led by Robert de Mowbray at Alnwick Castle 13 November 1093.
Alnwick Castle Greenwell Road, Alnwick NE66 1NQ
Death of Alexander III
Alexander III ruled in Scotland for 36 years till his death when he fell from his horse when travelling home to see his wife in 1286, leaving his daughter as heir to the throne at the age of 3 years. However due to her premature death there was no ruler of Scotland.
King Alexander III
Coronation of John Balliol
John Balliol was chosen by Edward to become King of Scots.
He was crowned king at Scone on St Andrew's Day 1292 and ruled till 1296.
War of Independence
War of Independence began in 1296 because the English king Edward I wanted to appoint his choice to the vacant Scottish throne.
Declaration of Arbroath
A declaration in the form of a letter which was signed by 50 (8 Earls) (31 Barons) of Scotland with their seals attached and 11 without seals. The Letter was sent to the Pope (John XXII) on 6 April 1320 requesting the pope to recognise Robert the Bruce as the King of Scotland.
The Treaty of Edinburgh
The Treaty of Edinburgh–Northampton was a peace treaty between England and Scotland. It brought an end to the First Scottish war for Independence,The war began in 1296 The treaty was signed in Edinburgh Abbey of Holyrood, by Robert the Bruce, King of Scotland, on 17 March 1328, and was ratified by the English Parliament at Northampton on 1 May. The document is held by the
National Archives of Scotland in Edinburgh.
The Battle of Flodden.
The Battle of Flodden Field between the Scots army led by James IV and an English army led by Earl of Surrey resulted in an English victory. It was the largest battle fought between Scotland and England James IV was killed in the battle, becoming the last monarch of Great Britain to die in Battle.
Worst Scottish defeat by English forces and the first use of ships to bombard land troups. Known as the first modern battle in the British Isles. The Scots called it Black Saturday. Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset was Lord Protector of England led the English Army
Battle of Dunbar
Second Battle of Dunbar Cromwell defeated Scots at Doon Hill
Battle of Prestonpans
Last Jacobite Uprising fought on 21 September 1745.
A historic victory over Edward's Army led by Johnnie Cope. First Scottish victory over English lead by Bonnie Prince Charlie which led to victories taking them as far as Derby england before the final defeat at Culloden.
Battle of Culloden
The end of the Stuart battle for the throne and Jacobite Uprising with up to 2000 Scots dead the battle lasted 20 minutes with a victory to the English. Then came the banning of Tartan on 1 August 1746 by act of parliament made the wearing of Tartan Clothing (Highland Dress) which included the kilt,
illegal in Scotland.