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Scottish Independence

Important Dates between Scotland and England in the fight for Scottish Independence


Battle of Alnwick  

Malcolm III (Malcolm Canmore) King of Scotland 1058 -1093 occupied Edinburgh Castle and was first to start the battles between Scotland and England. He was killed by knights led by Robert de Mowbray at Alnwick Castle 13 November 1093. 


Alnwick Castle Greenwell Road, Alnwick NE66 1NQ

King of Scotland Malcolm III, Malcolm Canmore


Death of Alexander III

Alexander III ruled in Scotland for 36 years till his death when he fell from his horse when travelling home to see his wife in 1286, leaving his daughter as heir to the throne at the age of 3 years. However due to her premature death there was no ruler of Scotland.

King Alexander III 

King Alexander III of Scotland


Coronation of John Balliol

John Balliol was chosen by Edward to become King of Scots.

He was crowned king at Scone on St Andrew's Day 1292 and ruled till 1296. 


War of Independence

War of Independence began in 1296 because the English king Edward I wanted to appoint his choice to the vacant Scottish throne.


Battle of Dunbar

John de Warenne defeats John Balliol, paving the way for most of Scotland to fall to Edward I (Longshanks).

Victoria Harbour and Dunbar Castle


Battle of Stirling Bridge

William Wallace defeated the English forces of John de Warenne and Hugh de Cressingham near Stirling on the River Forth.

Memorial Story Stone Stirling Bridge Stirling
Battle at Stirling Bridge 1297 William Wallace


Battle of Falkirk

Led by Edward I the English army defeated the Scots led by William Wallace. Shortly after the battle Wallace resigned as Guardian of Scotland

National Monument of Scotland Wallace Mo
Sir William Wallace (Braveheart) Stirlin


Battle of Roslin

When 8000 Scots defeat 30.000 English at Roslin. 

Roslin Castle Ruins Midlothian Scotland


Siege of Stirling Castle.

The English under King Edward Ist capture Stirling Castle

Stirling Castle Stirling


Battle of Loudoun Hill. 

 King Robert the Bruce Crowned 1306. His first victory over English came at Loudoun Hill Darvel Ayrshire.

Robert the Bruce First Victory over Engl


Battle of Bannockburn. 

Scottish victory in the First War of Scottish Independence, Robert the Bruce defeating the English which led to Independence.

King Robert the Bruce Statue Bannockburn


Declaration of Arbroath

A declaration in the form of a letter which was signed by 50 (8 Earls) (31 Barons) of Scotland with their seals attached and 11 without seals. The Letter was sent to the Pope (John XXII) on 6 April 1320 requesting the pope to recognise Robert the Bruce as the King of Scotland.

Declaration of Arbroath 2020 700 Years Independent


The Treaty of Edinburgh 

The Treaty of Edinburgh–Northampton was a peace treaty between England and Scotland. It brought an end to the First Scottish war for Independence,The war began in 1296  The treaty was signed in Edinburgh Abbey of Holyrood, by Robert the Bruce, King of Scotland, on 17 March 1328, and was ratified by the English Parliament at Northampton on 1 May. The document is held by the

National Archives of Scotland in Edinburgh.  

Treaty of Edinburgh Signed Abbey of Holy


The Battle of Flodden.

The Battle of Flodden Field between the Scots army led by James IV and an English army led by Earl of Surrey resulted in an English victory. It was the largest battle fought between Scotland and England James IV was killed in the battle, becoming the last monarch of Great Britain to die in Battle.

King James IV of Scotland 1473 - 1513


Battle of Pinkie Cleugh

Worst Scottish defeat by English forces and the first use of ships to bombard land troups. Known as the first modern battle in the British Isles. The Scots called it Black Saturday. Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset was Lord Protector of England led the English Army

Battle of Pinkie Cleugh Memorial Stone


Battle of Dunbar 

Second Battle of Dunbar Cromwell defeated Scots at Doon Hill

Battle of Dunbar 1650 Memorial.


Battle of Rullion Green 

Pentland Uprising Government troups defeat Covenanters Army

Covenanters Memorial Colinton Edinburgh


Battle of Prestonpans 

Last Jacobite Uprising fought on 21 September 1745. 

A historic victory over Edward's Army led by Johnnie Cope. First Scottish victory over English lead by Bonnie Prince Charlie which led to victories taking them as far as Derby england before the final defeat at Culloden.

Battle flag Prestonpans (3).png


Battle of Culloden

The end of the Stuart battle for the throne and Jacobite Uprising with up to 2000 Scots dead the battle lasted 20 minutes with a victory to the English. Then came the banning of Tartan on 1 August 1746 by act of parliament made the wearing of Tartan Clothing (Highland Dress) which included the kilt,

illegal in Scotland. 

Bonnie Prince Charlie Jacobite Uprising
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